\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\tWhat is Catchment Management?\n\t\t\t\t\t

What is a catchment?<\/i><\/strong><\/p>

A catchment can be described as an area of land surrounded by higher ground like hills and mountains, where water drains to the lowest point (e.g. a creek, river, lake or ocean). The catchment area includes all the land area that drains rainfall into rivers or streams (and some may flow underground) that flow out to the coast and may affect mangrove forests, seagrass beds and coral reefs. The term catchment is also used for the area of land that drains water into dams; or includes sedimentation basins.\u00a0<\/p>

A large catchment area is often made up of a number of smaller catchments called sub-catchments. A catchment can be as small as one or two houses or a small village or it could cover an area greater than 250,000 km2,\u00a0 like the Amazon basin. Because water flows downhill, any activities involving the use or management of natural resources in the upper catchment can affect the lower part of the catchment and the overall marine environment. Catchments can be affected by numerous factors including seasons - whether dry or rainy, topography, soil types, population density, forestry, development - such as industrial or mining activities, and farming practices. Consequently, there is a need to adopt a whole or integrated catchment approach to ensure that damaging activities such as pollution do not impact others \u2014 particularly downstream communities of the catchment.<\/p>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tRead more on IUCN<\/a>\n\t\t

What is catchment management?<\/i><\/strong><\/p>

Catchment management can broadly be defined as the process of setting a vision, goals, indicators and measurable targets for change to achieve a healthy catchment area, and ensuring that there is an accompanying monitoring program in place. In addition, managing a catchment includes the coordination of stakeholders and their relationships, as they engage with the goals and actions that, collectively, should promote positive change as reflected in both the measured indicators and in the quality of catchment-related services for urban communities. There are numerous tools that support catchment management planning but there is no one size fits all and each municipality will define their objectives differently, depending on the local context and priorities. Thus, one urban catchment management plan might focus on local community river health initiatives while another might be more focused on improved stormwater management or the need for water security through groundwater recharge. The scale of a CMP can also vary, based on the scale at which action is effective, the scale most appropriate for hydrological modeling and\/or the municipal boundary.<\/p>

What is integrated catchment management?<\/i><\/strong><\/p>

As mentioned above, effective catchment management requires an integrated approach that considers the impacts on both upstream and downstream communities of a specific catchment.\u00a0<\/p>

ICM can be defined as a system-based approach, which aims to combine the objectives of environmental protection, sustainable agriculture, and natural resource management within catchments, with the principles of ecologically sustainable development. ICM acknowledges that because the flows and stocks of water, sediment and contaminants are usually contained within topographical boundaries, the river basin or catchment is the appropriate organizing unit for understanding and managing ecosystem processes in a context that includes social, economic and political considerations, and guides communities towards an agreed vision of sustainable natural resource management in their catchment. Accordingly, ICM comprises not just the outcome of sustainable levels of resource exploitation, but the ongoing process to achieve and improve sustainability.<\/p>

Synonyms used in catchment management approaches<\/b><\/p>


Drainage basin<\/p>

Urban rivers<\/p>

Integrated river basin management<\/p>

integrated water resource management (IWRM)<\/p>

natural resource management (NRM)<\/p>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\tWhat can you expect from this Guide?\n\t\t\t\t\t

This is a general guide to managing and carrying out Catchment Management Planning that can be applied globally, in alignment with the legislation of your national, subnational and local government. As noted above, the terminology used to define a \u2018catchment\u2019 varies in different geographical contexts, and that this guide specifically offers an approach to managing urban rivers (see Information Box for synonyms).\u00a0<\/p>


Our Catchment Management guide offers useful case studies and references, some of which describe available management techniques in a format that is easy to use and access, to provide resources to cities which should contribute to the restoration and conservation of freshwater ecosystems and safeguard their benefits to people. To be applicable anywhere in the world and enable its general use, this guide is deliberately broad.\u00a0<\/p>

(1) The guide first outlines the importance of developing a catchment management plan by initially defining and understanding the problem area. Baseline knowledge of an urban catchment is an essential prerequisite to efficient and suitable management efforts.\u00a0<\/p>

(2) Second, the guide provides suitable tools and resources to ensure the successful implementation of the catchment management plan.<\/p>","post_title":"Catchment Management in your city","post_excerpt":"","post_status":"publish","comment_status":"closed","ping_status":"closed","post_password":"","post_name":"catchment-management-in-your-city","to_ping":"","pinged":"","post_modified":"2023-04-13 11:06:24","post_modified_gmt":"2023-04-13 09:06:24","post_content_filtered":"","post_parent":0,"guid":"https:\/\/citieswithnature.org\/?page_id=12031","menu_order":0,"post_type":"page","post_mime_type":"","comment_count":"0","filter":"raw","meta_id":"100997","post_id":"12031","meta_key":"_wp_page_template","meta_value":"template-guides.php"},{"ID":12368,"post_author":"10","post_date":"2022-11-29 08:50:09","post_date_gmt":"2022-11-29 06:50:09","post_content":"

\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tGuides<\/a>\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tCurb light pollution in your city<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tOverview<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t

Curb light pollution in your city<\/h3>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t

<\/p>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\"Why\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tWhy light pollution?\n\t\t\t\t\t\t

Light pollution is increasing globally, with an estimated 80% of the world's population currently living under a \u201clit sky\u201d - a figure closer to 99% in Europe and North America. The amount of artificial light on the Earth\u2019s surface is increasing by at least 2% annually, while the use of artificial light at night is substantially increasing all over the world. To understand why light pollution is a problem, we first need to understand what it is. <\/p>\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t<\/section>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\tWhat is light pollution?\n\t\t\t\t\t

According to CMS Resolution 13.5, \u201clight pollution refers to artificial light that alters the natural patterns of light and dark in ecosystems\u201d. Artificial light is used to illuminate streets, commercial, residential and industrial properties, particularly in cities. Although artificial light is often used for security or safety reasons, monuments, churches, bridges and other landmarks may be illuminated at night for aesthetic purposes. <\/p>

Light pollution and wildlife<\/b><\/p>

The increasing use of lighting has modified the natural environment dramatically impacting wild animals, plants and the functioning of entire ecosystems. There is a lack of information regarding how artificial light at night impacts most species. Research so far has largely focused on some species of birds, bats, marine turtles and insects. As they are nocturnal, bats are particularly susceptible to light pollution which can disrupt their foraging, commuting, drinking, roosting and migrating behaviors. Light pollution can affect adult female marine turtles when they come ashore to nest, and hatchling turtles may be unable to find their way to the sea or to disperse successfully to the open ocean under conditions where light pollution is present. Light pollution is implicated, alongside other drivers such as pesticide use, in the massive global decline in insects. The physiology, behavior and fitness of diurnal and nocturnal insects can all be affected, with knock-on effects on pollination and food webs.\u00a0\u00a0<\/p>

Further research is needed to investigate how light pollution impacts other groups of animals including fish, reptiles (other than turtles) and mammals (other than bats).<\/p>\n\t\t\tHow does light pollution impact migratory birds?\n\t\t

Light pollution can alter birds' behaviors, including migration, foraging and vocal communication. It also affects their activity levels and their energy expenditures. Migratory birds are particularly exposed to light pollution, especially those which migrate at night. Light pollution attracts and disorients nocturnally migrating birds, which may end up circling in illuminated areas. This unnatural light-induced behavior can mean they end up depleting their energy reserves and puts them at risk of exhaustion, predation and lethal collision.<\/p>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t

Satellite monitoring revealed that from 2012 to 2016,<\/p>

artificially lit outdoor areas increased by 2.2% per year<\/strong>. Recent studies show that this number could be much greater.<\/p>

Light pollution can change birds' migration patterns, foraging behaviors, and vocal communication.\u00a0<\/p>

Each year, light pollution contributes to the deaths of millions of birds from collisions with buildings and other infrastructure. Long distance migrants, such as the blackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata<\/i>), the Asian stubtail (Urosphena squameiceps<\/i>) and the oriental plover (Charadrius veredus<\/i>), may start and end their migrations in areas with relatively low levels of light pollution, but during migration they may fly over areas of intense urban development where they experience high levels of artificial light. Migrating birds can be attracted to lights, particularly when there is low cloud, fog or rain and they are flying at lower altitudes.<\/p>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\tCities and light pollution\n\t\t\t\t\t

In urban areas<\/a>, artificial light comes from many sources and light levels may vary during the night. For example, street lighting is sometimes kept at a constant level throughout the night, whereas light spilling from the windows of residential buildings may only be a contributing factor during the first hours of the night. In some locations, lighting at open air sports facilities can be a large contributor to light pollution. Other sources of light pollution include industrial, institutional and commercial (e.g. shopping centers, hotels etc.) sources, vehicles, airfields and construction sites.\u00a0 Wildlife near coastal cities may also be impacted by artificial light emission from vessels and offshore infrastructure.\u00a0<\/p>

In cities, it is important to consider the cumulative effects of different light sources rather than separating each type of lighting. In a city center street, for example, where signs and lights from shop windows provide enough light for people to walk, streetlights could be kept switched off.<\/p>\n\t\t

What can be done to curb light pollution?<\/b><\/p>

International efforts are underway to reduce the impacts of artificial light on wildlife. At the last meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP13, 2020) Resolution 13.5 \u201cLight Pollution Guidelines for Wildlife\u201d was adopted and guidelines on light pollution covering marine turtles, seabirds, and migratory shorebirds were endorsed. Among the recommendations, and particularly useful to cities, the guidelines set forth six principles of best lighting practices (see our Checklist<\/a>) and call for Environmental Impact Assessments for relevant projects that could result in light pollution. These should consider the main sources of light pollution at a certain site, the likely wild species that could be impacted, and facts about proximity to important habitats and migratory pathways for different species.<\/p>

In 2021, the CMS Scientific Council called for the development of additional guidelines, including for migratory landbirds and bats. A draft of these guidelines has been prepared and will be presented to CMS Parties for adoption at the next CMS Conference of the Parties in October 2023.
Numerous cities have undertaken different approaches to curbing light pollution to protect migratory birds. These have mostly relied on creating awareness to facilitate policy changes. View our case studies
here<\/a>.<\/p>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\tWhat can you expect from this Guide?\n\t\t\t\t\t

This guide aims to inform cities about the threats of light pollution to different groups of animals with a focus on migratory bird species. The guide also presents case studies and provides lessons learned to share knowledge and expertise across urban stakeholders to curb light pollution and protect species globally.<\/p>\n\t\t

This guide was produced through collaboration with the following partners:<\/strong><\/p>\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t<\/a>","post_title":"Curb light pollution in your city","post_excerpt":"","post_status":"publish","comment_status":"closed","ping_status":"closed","post_password":"","post_name":"curb-light-pollution-in-your-city","to_ping":"","pinged":"","post_modified":"2023-03-31 11:43:01","post_modified_gmt":"2023-03-31 09:43:01","post_content_filtered":"","post_parent":0,"guid":"https:\/\/citieswithnature.org\/?page_id=12368","menu_order":1,"post_type":"page","post_mime_type":"","comment_count":"0","filter":"raw","meta_id":"103851","post_id":"12368","meta_key":"_wp_page_template","meta_value":"template-guides.php"},{"ID":11568,"post_author":"10","post_date":"2022-11-21 11:58:44","post_date_gmt":"2022-11-21 09:58:44","post_content":"

\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tGuides<\/a>\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tEcosystem services in cities<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\tOverview<\/a>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t

Ecosystem services<\/h3>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\t

What do they mean for cities?<\/p>\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\"\"\n\t\t\t\t\t\t

Ecosystem services are a useful way of categorizing the value of nature, and the different benefits of nature. Using the word \u201cservices\u201d indicates the importance of nature - comparable to other services municipalities provide. This makes it more visible on the policy-making agenda and helps communities to become more aware of the need to protect it.<\/p>\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\t\n\t<\/section>\t\t\n\t\t\t