Guides Menu

Monitoring and reporting

Find out more about the global standards and mechanisms to track and report on action for biodiversity

Ecosystem restoration in the

 Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

In December 2022, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity’s 15th Conference of the Parties (CBD COP15) took place in Montreal, Canada, bringing together governments and stakeholders from all over the world to gather and agree on actions towards achieving the 2030 goals for biodiversity. More than 190 countries represented at COP15 finalized and adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), charting a way forward for global action to halt biodiversity loss. The GBF speaks directly to ecosystem restoration in Target 2: Ensure that by 2030 at least 30 percent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and coastal and marine ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity. 

Target 3 of the GBF calls for 30% of the earth’s land and sea to be conserved through the establishment of protected areas (PAs) and other area-based conservation measures (OECMs). The 30×30 target is more ambitious than its predecessor, Aichi Target 11, which aimed for the protection of 17% of land and 10% of coastal and marine areas. Aichi Target 11 was partially successful in numbers, but less so in quality, due to concerns that many protected areas lack connectivity, do not always safeguard the most important areas for biodiversity, and are not equitably and effectively managed.


What does the 30×30 target (Target 2 and 3 of the GBF) mean for local governments?

Cities are on the frontline of responding to the adverse impacts of land degradation on their communities. Yet, cities are also hubs of innovation and solutions to such challenges. Cities play a critical role in upscaling actions that will transform the current consumptive and destructive development trajectory, to a more sustainable one in harmony with nature. As government institutions, local governments are more agile than national governments when it comes to developing and adopting new policy instruments and plans; and can do so more quickly and easily than their national counterparts because of their proximity to their communities. 

Subnational and local governments can introduce projects, programs and measures that are directed at implementing their commitments and contributing to one or more of the GBF targets. This will demonstrate their support to the successful implementation of NBSAPs, the GBF and the programs of work under the Convention on Biological Diversity. For example, actions taken at the local and subnational scales to restore degraded ecosystems, protect areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, and implement other effective area-based conservation measures (OECMs) can contribute to the achievement of the ‘30 x 30’ targets (Targets 2 and 3). The restoration of degraded ecosystems in cities is gaining traction under the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, offering opportunities for sustainable job creation, food security and addressing climate change.

Why 30x30?

The 30% conservation goal was chosen by scientists because it’s a level that gives the planet a chance to recover and could protect millions of species from extinction. 

Ecosystem restoration in the

Plan of Action

Under Action Area 7: Monitoring and reporting of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework’s (GBF) Plan of Action, CitiesWithNature and RegionsWithNature is recognized by UN Biodiversity as the place where cities will monitor and report on their voluntary commitments to national and global biodiversity targets; and for the inclusion of such contributions into National Reports under the CBD.

Your city can join CitiesWithNature and RegionsWithNature to capture your commitments to take concrete action for biodiversity on the Action Platform, thereby becoming part of the global community of subnational and local governments taking action for nature and reporting on them, supporting their national governments in implementing the GBF and NBSAPs. This will serve, in turn, to inspire other subnational and local governments to follow your city’s lead, thereby amplifying and scaling out actions for biodiversity.

On the CitiesWithNature Action Platform your city can report under the following areas: